World History




























From their base in Bengal, the British steadily gained control of India’s warring regional states until Britain was master of India. India had the biggest population of any British colony, and it supplied troops to enforce British rule elsewhere in the empire. Soldiers at this time had to bite off the ends of rifle cartridges to load their rifles. When beef fat was used to seal cartridges, Indian troops rebelled because cows are sacred to Hindus. The rebellion quickly spread to other areas of Indian society. After crushing the uprising, the British government took direct control of India from the British East India Company.

India was the “jewel in the crown” of Britain’s colonial empire that also included Canada, Australia, and big chunks of Africa. This was the Victorian Age of Queen Victoria when Britain was at the height of its power. It was said, “The sun never sets on the British Empire.” Britain brought advancements to India including a postal service, telegraph, good roads, and a railroad network. But British control also harmed Indians. For example, the spinning of cotton in Indian homes had long been a source of income for peasants until they were put out of work by inexpensive cotton cloth imported from England’s textile mills.

Canada = a country in northern North America, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Pacific Ocean and Alaska to the west, and the United States to the south. Its capital city is Ottawa

Australia = the smallest continent. Australia is also a country; its capital city is Canberra.

Victorian Age = the period of British history when Queen Victoria ruled; it includes the entire second half of the nineteenth century, a time when Britain was the most powerful nation in the world. The Victorian period was known for a rather stern morality.