World History




































National pride inspired Germans and Italians to redefine the boundaries of their kingdoms.

Nationalism is a deep devotion to one’s country that places it above all others. It begins with the desire ofpeople who share a common culture to have their own nation free from outside control. In the early 1800s, much of Europe was still divided into small kingdoms often ruled by foreigners. Inspired by nationalism and Enlightenment ideas of freedom, people hungered to belong to their own nations.

nationalism = loyalty and devotion to a nation; the believe that your own country is more important than any other country.

In the mid-1800s, most of Italy was ruled by the Austrian and Spanish royal families. There was only one Italian -born monarch, King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia. Unification of Italy began here. The king had a clever prime minister named Cavour who helped to unite northern Italy. A popular revolutionary general, Giuseppe Garibaldi, raised an army of a thousand volunteers who brought southern Italy into the Italian union. In 1861, Italy became a nation, and Victor Emmanuel was proclaimed king.

Sardinia = an Italian island in the Mediterranean Sea west of the mainland of Italy. The kingdom of Sardinia, which was founded in the early eighteenth century, became the nucleus of united Italy during the nineteenth century.

unification = the process of uniting a divided nation.

prime minister = the head of an elected government. (In countries that have a parliamentary system, the prime minister is roughly equivalent to the president of the United States).

In 1850, Germany was made up of 39 small countries. One of the largest and most powerful was the eastern kingdom of Prussia. Prussia’s brilliant prime minister, Otto von Bismark, believed Germany’s unification would not be achieved through democratic means, “but by blood and iron.” Using a step-by-step approach, Bismark started and won three separate wars against Denmark, Austria, and France, each war bringing him closer to his goal of a greater Germany. By 1870, Germany was unified, and Prussia’s king was crowned as kaiser (emperor) over all of Germany. (A prime minister serves as the head of a country’s government. In today’s world, prime ministers have powers similar to American presidents.)

Denmark = a country in northern Europe. It is made up of the Jutland Peninsula and more than 400 islands in the North Sea. It shares a border with Germany to the south. Its capital city is Copenhagen.

Kaiser = the German word for "emperor".