World History



























































Elizabeth I

Elizabeth was a strong queen who tolerated religious differences.

England became a Protestant country in 1534 when King Henry VIII broke from the Catholic Church so he could divorce his first wife and marry Anne Boleyn. He was hoping for a male heir, but instead they had a daughter. His daughter grew up to become one of history’s most brilliant rulers, Queen Elizabeth I. Elizabeth was intelligent and confident. By tolerating religious differences, she maintained peace in her kingdom. She ruled for nearly a half century during the Renaissance in England, the “Elizabethan Period,” when William Shakespeare wrote his plays, and the English language underwent rapid development. Greek and Latin words entered the English vocabulary, and Shakespeare alone invented hundreds of new words.

Henry VIII = an English king remembered for his six wives and his quarrel with the Roman Catholic Church. After being excommunicated by the pope, he established the Church of England in 1534.

Elizabeth I = a famous queen of England who during the late 1500s; (1558 to 1603). Although she herself was a Protestant (like her father Henry VIII), she promoted religious toleration. During her reign, English ships were starting to explore the New World, and Renaissance writers like William Shakespeare were revitalizing English literature.

William Shakespeare = an English playwright and poet who is generally considered one of the greatest writers of the English language. His plays include Hamlet, Othello, and Romeo and Juliet. He also wrote more than 150 sonnets. Many familiar sayings and quotations come from his works.

It was during Elizabeth’s reign that England defeated the “invincible” Spanish Armada of 130 warships sent by Spain to attack and invade England. Although Spain was the world’s largest empire, England and France were also building navies to compete on the oceans. Spain’s Catholic king wanted to conquer the meddlesome English and return England to the Catholic faith. As the Armada waited off the French coast for its invasion army to arrive, the British sent burning fire ships against the Spanish vessels forcing them to scatter. With their battle formation broken, the Spanish ships were unable to fend off the smaller, faster, and more maneuverable British warships with their longer-range cannons. The defeat of the Armada in 1588 was a huge blow to Spain’s pride and confidence, and it made England ruler of the waves.

Spanish Armada = a fleet of Spanish warships that tried to invade England in 1588. The purpose of the invasion was to force England to become a Catholic country once again. The invasion failed.