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Counter-Reformation

Catholics burned Protestants during the Counter-Reformation.

At about this time, the Catholic Church was adopting reforms of its own. A new Catholic religious order,the Jesuits, promoted education and sent missionaries to Asia and America. Schools were opened to educate women in Renaissance learning, and the sale of indulgences was stopped. This Counter-Reformation, or Catholic Reformation, had another important task: fighting the ideas of Protestantism.

Counter-Reformation = a reform movement within the Roman Catholic Church that arose in response to the Protestant Reformation; also known as the Catholic Reformation.

Catholic Reformation = another name for the Counter-Reformation.

The Counter-Reformation identified books to be burned, and it stepped up the work of the Inquisition, a system of church courts that placed heretics and sinners on trial. Torture and imprisonment were used to extract confessions from Protestants and disobedient Catholics. The Inquisition was especially strong in Spain where Christian forces had only recently succeeded in pushing the Muslim Moors back to North Africa. For centuries under Muslim rule, Spain had been a multi-cultural society where Muslims, Jews, and Christians lived side-by-side. After Christians retook Spain in 1492 (called the “ Reconquista”), Jews and Muslims were expelled from Spain.

Inquisition = an organization in the Roman Catholic Church in the past that was responsible for finding and punishing people who did not accept its beliefs and practices; a harsh and unfair investigation or series of questions.

Spanish Inquisition = the church court (Inquisition) established in Spain in the late Middle Ages. Today it is remembered for being especially cruel and unjust.

Moor = Muslims from North Africa, of Arab descent, who invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711.

Reconquista = a series of wars in which Christian armies took back control of the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors.