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Lesson 41: Clean Up Your Signal Phrases

Use the following checklist to clean up your signal phrases.


Lesson Steps


Double-check your signal phrases. Remember, each piece of evidence you cite should be introduced by a signal phrase.

  • Rarely, you can leave out the signal phrase if you are only citing a statistic or a short phrase.
  • If your evidence is a direct quote that consists of at least one full sentence, then you MUST use a signal phrase.
    • A direct quote is when you use someone's exact words.

Double-check to make sure that you have followed the "Name Rule".

  • The first time you use someone's name, introduce them by their full name (First Last), followed (or preceded) by an appositive which gives the reader some idea of who they are.
  • Thereafter, every time you use that person's name, use only their last name (and leave out the appositive).

Are you happy with your transitions? Remember, the "big four" are:

  • According to,
  • In fact,
  • For example,
  • In the words of . . .

Did you use the appropriate one? Would another be more appropriate?


Congratulations! You're done with this lesson.