Grammar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Participial Adjectives

Adjectives modify nouns.

The adjectives in the list above are "ordinary adjectives". They don't usually give us much trouble.

However, there is another class of adjectives that deserves our special attention. They are called participial adjectives. Participial adjectives are adjectives that are formed from verbs.

Participial Adjectives

There are two kinds of participial adjectives:

Present Participial

Past Participial

  • boiling water
  • crying baby
  • bleeding knees
  • worn shoes
  • bruised face
  • broken arm

 

Present Participles

"Present particple" is a fancy name for the "-ing form" of a verb. (It's the form of the verb that ends with -ing).

When placed before a noun, present participles can function as adjectives:

Past Participles

"Past participle" is a fancy name for the "had tense" of a verb. (It's the form of the verb that you use after the word "had".

Nine times out of ten, the "had tense" is the same as the past tense of the verb:

However, for irregular verbs, the "had tense" (past participle) is different from the past tense.

  • She wore the shoes. (past tense)
  • She had worn the shoes. (past participle).

 

  • He ate the apple. (past tense)
  • He had eaten the apple. (past participle)

 

  • Ralph saw the unicorn. (past tense)
  • Ralph had seen the unicorn. (past particple)

 

Key Points:

present participle = -ing form

past participle = had form

 

Both present particples and past participles can be used as adjectives. When they are used in this way, they are called participial adjectives.

Adjectives
Ordinary Adjectives Participial Adjectives
  • red dress
  • fast car
  • tall woman
  • smelly dog
Present Participial Past Participial
  • boiling water
  • crying baby
  • bleeding knees
  • worn shoes
  • bruised face
  • broken arm

 

Instructions for the Quiz

Identify the underlined word.

Example 1:

I read a fascinating book.

  • present particple
  • past participle

Answer = A.

"Fascinating" is the -ing form of the verb "to fascinate"; therefore, the answer is A (present particple).

 

Example 2:

I put an ice pack on my swollen eyes.

  • present particple
  • past participle

Answer = B

"Swollen" is the had form of the verb "to swell"; therefore, the answer is B (past participle)